Polar and remote area research is supported not only by permanent stations but also by a series of observatories, that is, by permanent or semi-permanent infrastructures designed to allow for long-term, often automated, measurements.
Eight observatories report to the Institute of Polar Sciences, in various capacities: 6 in polar regions, of which 4 in the Arctic (Climate Change Tower, Gruvedabet and 2 Mooring: Kongfjorden and Storfjorden) and 2 in Antarctica (BSRN Station and Mooring del Ross Sea), and 2 in non-polar regions, of which 1 in the high altitude region (Col Margherita) and 1 in the Adriatic Sea (Mooring Southern Adriatic, MSA). 

Ancoraggi strumentati Sud Adriatico - ULTIMO TITOLO Ancoraggio Strumentato Permanente Adriatico (ex) MSA AGGIORAMENTO 2023

The BSRN was created to improve the quality of measurements of the Earth-atmosphere radiative fluxes that determine the thermal conditions and circulation of the atmosphere and the ocean. The ISP manages this observatory at the Italian-French Concordia station in Antarctica. Installed in 2006, the BSRN was funded by the PNRA and consists of a series of passive instruments (radiometers and photometers) that measure different components of the radiation balance (both in the solar and infrared spectrum), including the surface albedo.
In addition to these measurements, during the austral summer, the columnar content of aerosols is also measured by means of an SP02sun photometer, and the ultraviolet radiation spectrum by a UV-RAD radiometer, from which it is possible to obtain the ozone concentration, along the entire atmospheric column. Other measurements that are carried out as part of the observatory's activities are in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and concern the physical and optical properties of atmospheric particulate matter at ground level: its diffusion, absorption coefficients and dimensional distribution.

The Gruvebadet atmospheric laboratory is located about one kilometre south of Ny-Ålesund and is dedicated to the study of the atmospheric composition and more particularly that of the aerosol. The laboratory was opened in 2010 by the CNR in the building that once housed the Ny-Ålesund miners' showers (Gruve = mine, badet = bathroom in Norwegian).
The laboratory is equipped to house a large number of instruments dedicated to the study of aerosol. There is an accessible roof for the installation of both sampling heads and actual samplers, as well as a series of "passages" for the sampling tubes between the interior of the laboratory and the roof.
The laboratory is managed by the CNR in collaboration with numerous Italian universities: Florence, Perugia, Venice, Turin etc.
The main measurements made in the laboratory are:
   - the chemical characterization (organic component and metals) of size segregated atmospheric particulate ;
   - measurement of the size distribution of aerosols and their diffusion and radiation absorption properties ;
   - the measurement of the carbon component of particulate matter (EC / OC);
   - study of new particle formation processes and their ability to form clouds.
In recent years, atmospheric activities have been accompanied by studies of the surface snowpack. The interaction between the atmosphere and snow is one of the topics that most needs to be explored as, for example, the deposition of particulate matter on the snow can accelerate its melting.
The laboratory has attracted more and more interest from foreign researchers; to date, there are numerous active international collaborations on these topics with KOPRI, NPI, the University of Helsinki etc and others.

  Gruvebadet - Aerosol laboratory on the website: artico.cnr.it

The Amundsen-Nobile Climate Change Tower (CCT) is a scientific platform dedicated to studying the thermodynamic characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the exchange processes between the surface and the lower layers of the atmosphere. The structure is composed of 17 modules equipped with patch boxes to provide a power supply and data connection that ends in a dedicated hut at 40 m from the tower, where the acquisition systems are located. The CCT provides continuous profiles of meteorological parameters at four levels up to 34 m, measurements of turbulent fluxes of momentum heat and moisture at two levels as well as of radiation balance components (visible and infrared). Measurement of the characteristics of the snow layer (depth and temperature) are also provided in conjunction with the atmospheric parameters.

Due to the uniqueness of such an infrastructure in Ny-Ålesund, since 2012, the CCT and the surrounding area have become a point of reference for the integrated observation of the components of the climate system. Offering access to national and international research groups, new scientific installations have been set up. In particular for the measurement of greenhouse gases (in collaboration with KOPRI); for the measurement of the snow cover index and spectral reflectivity of the snow; for remote sensing of wind profiles with SODAR and WindLIDAR (in collaboration with KOPRI); to study processes in the active layer, the vegetation, the snow cover and the permafrost temperature profiles.

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